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The Evolution of the Mind

Frames of mind and ideas about existence are probably not truly transmitted or passed down in an evolutionary manner, however they seem to be passed down culturally, and sometimes become apparent in a way that is parallel to reemergence in biological evolution.  Both Walt Whitman, or his narrator, in his poem Leaves of Grass, and Erik in Siri Hustvedt’s The Sorrows of an American express transcendental ideas.  Although these books were written more than a century apart, Whitman’s ideas about universality and oneness reemerge at the end of Hustvedt’s novel.  In biological evolution, physiological elements may reemerge after having lost use, especially if they were kept in an organism after not truly being successful when they originally emerged.  Similarly, in cultu
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Lack of Free Will as a Viable Option

Having a belief in free will can shape a view of life.  Believing in free will “grants” people the ability to truly change the world and shape their own lives.  Most people who believe in free will acknowledge that there are limitations – one cannot do whatever they want, but they can make a choice between whatever options are presented.  A belief in the lack of free will is often seen as a negative and apathetic outlook.  Because of this connotation, in my experience, most people cling to the idea of free will and treat the matter as if there is no other option.  Unsure of my own beliefs on the matter, I intend to present the option of a lack of free will, since I see it as being just as justifiable and viable an argument as the argument for free will.  Biology, along with evo
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