Bio 103, Lab 5: Ongoing change at larger scales: chemical reactions and "ferments"/enzymes

Paul Grobstein's picture
Not only is everything in motion but the "natural" tendency of everything , as we'll talk more about in class, is to fall apart, become more disordered. That tendency is apparent in diffusion (as we saw in the last lab), in the self-ionization of water (animation) and in chemical reactions. In this lab we will begin looking at how life processes can make use of the natural tendency to fall apart to create order. A key part of this story is that things fall apart at different rates and that "enzymes" influence that rate. We will explore the capability of enzymes to control chemical reaction rate and try and deduce characteristics of enzymes from our observations. (Instructors: see lab setup instructions).

We will begin with some basic observations implying the existence of enzymes and then explore a particular chemical reaction, the "falling apart" of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas, as it is affected by the enzyme hydrogen peroxidase:

2H2O2 ---> 2H2O + 02

Your report should include a description of your observations relevant to identifying important characteristics of enzymes and some hypotheses about what produces those characteristics.  Are "ferments"/enzymes "alive"?

LuisanaT's picture

Enzymes......proteins

If we continue to personify enzymes to answer the change in their rate of production due to things like pH . temperature, concentration, etc, what does that reveal about protiens? Enzymes are essentially protein. To think about the large range of functions just protien can offer is rather amazing. Protiens that are dead even hold tremendous significance, one example being human hair. Protiens have so much potential. Oh the possibilities.....
Kee Hyun Kim's picture

Andy and Eri's enzyme lab report 2 ( enzyme story)

Prior to our experiement, we had a hypothesis that the more acidic and higher the temparature the enzymes were, the faster they will break down the substances.

However, by observing outcomes from our experiment and that of others, we were able to find out that the enzymes perform in a U shaped curve regarding the level of acididity and temperature.

Enzymes performed at its maximum level ( of breaking down substance ) at ph level of 10.4 and at room temperature. As acid level and temeperature moved away from this optimal point, the performance of the enzymes fell.

Our hypothesis behind this result is that since these enzymes came from a cow, it is likely that it performs optimally at a envioroment that best suits a cow (temperature and ph level).

Although we do not have the neccesary observation, we think this is a good hypothesis because it is logical that enzymes will differ in its optimal performing enviorment. ( for example enzymes in a deep sea fish would have to perform its break down fuction in a radically different enviorment to that of a cow)

 

cmcgowan's picture

Substrate Up.

Our story is that enzymes are working to keep things stable and neutral. Our experiment showed that more enzymes can better overcome the limitations of the substrate (e.g., more quickly).

Furthermore, in the pH test, the enzyme rate was highest at 7, which is neutral. In the temperature test, the enzyme rate was highest at room temperature.  So, it appears that enzymes rise more quickly/are most efficient at the "averages" of their environment. As a result, we believe that the job of enzymes is to achieve homeostasis in an organism.

 

<3,

Caitlin and Rachel

Sharhea's picture

Additional story - Enzymes

Initially, we assumed the more acidic the pH, the faster it would be for the forceps to rise to the top. Our data shows that our initial opinion may actually be wrong. The table shows that at pH 2, it took the forceps an average of 27 seconds to rise, at pH 7 an average of 18.3 seconds, and at pH 10 an average of 19.3 seconds. This created a parable instead of a linear relationship between rate and pH

Enzymes are proteins. They are used to catalyze chemical reactions, such as the Hydrogen Peroxide reaction that we did earlier in class. The enzyme created water and oxygen, when mixed with the hydrogen peroxide. The enzymes

· cause things to break down faster than normal;

· they do not break down themselves through the process;

· and they break down faster at pH 7 (neutral) and room temperature

Are enzymes alive? Are they similar to living things? Are enzymes improbable assembly?

kcough's picture

What are enzymes and what do they do?

Elizabeth Harnett

Kaitlin Cough

 

What are Enzymes?

Why do they react to the environment the way they do?

 

When they are at the two extremes they don’t react.

They are extracted from living things and are not known outside of them.

Catalyst enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide.

Living things are constantly reacting to their environment…enzymes are used to help stabilize the environment…for example, hydrogen peroxide is very unstable and will blow up if there is nothing to balance it.

The enzyme is breaking down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.

So enzymes aid in the stabilization of the environment of a living organism

Basically the enzymes only work if you work, if a living organism is too hot or too cold, the enzymes are less effective and efficient. They are also less effective if the pH balance is off kilter. Everything has optimal pH and temperature levels for it to work. For this particular enzyme it seems to be around pH 7 and room temperature. For example, would these enzymes be able to balance things in the stomach, where there is a pH balance of 2?

Enzymes break things down to maintain a balance.

The more enzymes there are the faster they break something down. There’s a direct relationship between the amount of enzymes and the time it takes for them to break something down. The more enzymes there are, the faster the hydrogen peroxide was broken down, the oxygen gas was released more quickly, therefore causing the disc to rise faster.

ekim's picture

on enzymes.

Saskia Guerrier, Eurie Kim

Our story on what enzymes are...
So this is what we know, enzymes work the "best" in neutral conditions and not so well in extreme conditions.
For example, in the pH experiement, the enzyme had the fastest effect when the pH was neutral (7.4), and the slowest effects when the pH was either acidic (2.0) or basic (10.4).
Enzymes are substances that create change, BUT only in a standardized environment. However, if the environment is drastically changed, the the enzyme is less effective in creating change.
So basically, enzymes help us determine the status of life b/c they work under liveable conditions.

enzymes mirror life.

LuisanaT's picture

What enzymes are

Enzymes are found in living organisms, and also behave like living beings.

When there are more of them, under normal conditions, they are more productive, like a larger group of people working on a project.

When the temperature is manipulated, the enzymes react much like humans and animals do. When it is too hot, they become lazy and slow down, and when it is too cold they similarly slow down. But if a certain amount of heat is added to the enzyme, a gradual increase in its rate will occur until it reaches its limit of reacting under high temperatures.

If you change the pH, you are affecting the "body" of the enzyme and its ability to work normally. An enzyme at a neutral pH is able to function most efficiently. As with the bell curve of the temperature's effect on enzyme reactions, before reaching the enzyme's limit, its reaction rate will increase with an increase of pH.

Kee Hyun Kim's picture

Andy and Eri's enzyme lab report 1

We were responsible for part I and part IV of the lab.( we used 1.0 ml of H2O2)

Part 1

 

trial 1

Time measurement (ml)
0.5 1.7
1 2.5
1.5
3.5
2
4
2.5
4.5
3 5
3.5 5.5
4 6
4.5 6
5 6

 

trial 2

 

Time measurement (ml)
0 1
0.5 3
1 4
1.5 4.5
2 5
2.5 5.5
3 5.5
3.5 6
4 6
4.5 6

 

Part IV

Cold Temperature:

Trial 1 / Trial 2 / Trial 3: The time that it took to float up to the top of the 50 mL beaker was too long, so we were unable to measure it.

Hot Temperature:

Trial 1 / Trial 2 / Trial 3: Again, the time that it took to float up to the top of the 50mL beaker was too long, we were unable to measure it.

Room Temperature:

Trial 1: 9 seconds

Trial 2: 8 seconds

Trial 3: 6 seconds

We found that our initial observation (that the filtered disc would rise quickly in cold water and slowly in hot water) was completely wrong and instead, both the cold and hot temperature caused the disc to be unable to float. The room temperature was however, the fastest increasing rate.

ekim's picture

PART III: EFFECTS OF pH ON ENZYME ACTIVITY

Saskia Guerrier, Eurie Kim

Hypothesis
The lower the pH, the faster the "hydrogen peroxide + Catalase B" reaction; the higher the pH, the slower the "hydrogen peroxide + Catalase B" reaction.

Observations
pH2.0
trial 1: 70 secs*outlier
trial 2: 30 secs
trial 3: 30 secs
trial 4: 30 secs
AVG: 30 secs

ph7.4
trial 1: 24 secs
trial 2: 23 secs
trial 3: 19 secs
AVG: 22 secs

ph10.4
trial 1: 21 secs
trial 2: 19 secs
trial 3: 21 secs
AVG: 20.3 secs

At Wil's request, we did pH7.4 & pH10.4 over again.
pH7.4
trial 1: 15 secs
trial 2: 14 secs
trial 3: 14 secs
AVG: 14.3 secs

pH10.4
trial 1: 23 secs
trial 2: 20 secs
trial 3: 20 secs
AVG: 21 secs

LuisanaT's picture

Luisana and Crystal's enzyme observations

Hypothesis: The higher the temperature, the faster the enzyme will float to the top of the hydrogen peroxide.

Observation:

The average rate at room temperature after, four trials came out to be 6.5 seconds. The rate at a hot temperature exceeded a minute of a half without any progression to the top of the beaker of hydrogen peroxide. Similarly, the rate at cold temperature exceeded 5 minutes without any prgression towards the top of the beaker of hydrogen peroxide.

Sharhea's picture

Lakesha,Shanika, Sharhea

Experiment Part 1: Part 1


Start

30sec

60sec

90sec

120sec

150sec

180sec

210sec

240sec

270sec



1st Trial

1mL

1.4mL

1.6mL

1.8mL

3mL

3.3mL

3.4mL

3.6mL

3.6mL

3.6mL

-

-

2nd Trial

1.5mL

2.3mL

3.2mL

3.5mL

3.6mL

4.0mL

4.1mL

4.1mL

4.2mL

4.5mL

4.9mL

4.9mL

Experiment 2: Part 3 – pH changes


pH 2

pH 7

pH 10

pH 10 (2nd Trial)

1st Trail

30sec

18sec

19sec

20sec

2nd Trial

25sec

18sec

15sec

20sec

3rd Trial

26sec

19sec

13sec

18sec

Average

27sec

18.3sec

15.7sec

19.3sec

cmcgowan's picture

entrophy wife

ENZYME CONCENTRATION EFFECTS ON RATE

CATALASE B/1

Hypothesis: fastest (CORRECT)

DATA:

trial 1 - 7 seconds

trial 2 - 8 seconds

trial 3 - 8 seconds

 AVERAGE: 7.0666...

 

CATALASE C/ .5

HYPOTHESIS: SlOWeR THaN B because less enzyme concentration (CORRECT)

trial 1 - 15 seconds

trial 2 - 12 seconds

trial - 16 seconds

AVERAGE: 14.333333333333333

 

CATALASE D

HYPOTHESIS: SLoWesT beCauSE lEaST cOnCnTRateD! (CORRECT)

trial 1 - 33 seconds

trial 2 - 29 seconds

trial 3 - 27 seconds

AVERAGE: 29.666...

 

CONCLUSION:

 ENZYMES ARE GOING TO BRING THE APOCOLYPSE

just kidding! Our real conclusion is that our class's prediction was a good story.

 

kcough's picture

Bubbles Are Back (and better than ever!)

Kaitlin Cough

Elizabeth Harnett

We studied the effect of different concentrations of catalysts on the dissociation of Hydrogen Peroxide. Our hypothesis was that the highest concentration of enzymes would cause the filter disc to rise the fastest. The data we collected is as follows:

Catalyst

Trial Number

Reaction Time

B

1

Immediately

B

2

5

B

3

7

B

4

7

C

1

15

C

2

16

C

3

12

C

4

13

D

1

20

D

2

20

D

3

19

D

4

15

D

5

18

B

Average

4.75

C

Average

14

D

Average

18.4

 

We have concluded that our hypothesis is supported by the data we gathered. The higher the concentration of enzyme, the faster the disc rose.
kharmon's picture

The Story of Enzymes

Our enzyme, known as "the Essence of Life", has 4 main properties. It causes things to break down faster, doesn't break down itself in the process, has a pH dependency with a downward U curve, and a temperature dependency with a downwards U curve. Based on these characteristics, enyzmes are comparable to living things. Humans for example break down things faster than they would naturally and do not get broken down in the process. An example of is such is food in our digestive tract. We also have a pH dependency, as the pH of our blood is constant and both acids and bases could do damage to our bodies. We also have a temperature dependency as our body has a natural tendency to maintain homeostasis and remain at or around 98 degrees farenheit. So, a summary of observations may suggest that enzymes are living things. We are not exactly sure how we could test this further or what new predictions may arise from this, but we believe this is a likely story.
Ruth Goodlaxson's picture

Samar and Ruth's Epic Tale of Enzymes

There are three characteristics about enzymes that were somewhat puzzling:

1) Enzymes cause things to break down faster than they normally would.

2) In this process, enzymes do not break down themselves.

3) They break things down the most at room temperature and neutral pH's; they do not function well at extremes.

 

These are all characteristics of living things. The breaking down of hydrogen peroxide is like the process of consumption and digestion; looking at it this way, it makes sense that they are not broken down themselves in the process. Other living organisms also thrive in inverted "U" scales. Therefor, we think enzymes are very small living organisms.

To test this further, we could observe enzymes under a microscope and see if they appear to be improbable assemblies. Also, we could put them in an environment where there is nothing that can be broken down, and see if they are still around. If they are still present after being "starved," we would know they are not alive.

 

Kendra's picture

Enzymes: that is the question.

During lab today, Ashley and I came up three predictions about enzymes. The first one was that the higher the  concentration of the catalase, the faster the reaction with the hydrogen peroxide. The second one was the the higher the temperature, the slower the reaction and the third reaction was that the more acidic, the slower the reaction.

We know that enzymes are particles that break other particles apart more quickly. But they themselves do not break down. We know that all living things can be broken down into smaller particles and since enzymes do not break down themselves, we can conclude that they are not alive.

Thats our story and we're stickin' to it.

Ruth Goodlaxson's picture

Part IV: Temperature

By Ruth Goodlaxson and Samar Aryani

We were responsible for part IV of the lab, concerning temperature. We tested the time it took for a filter disc, saturated in Catalase B, to rise to the top of 50 ml of hydrogen peroxide. We tested this in chilled water, water at room temperature, and hot water. Our prediction before starting the experiment was that the filter disc would rise slowly in the chilled water, faster in the room temperature, and the fastest in the hot water.

Our times for each temperature were as follows:

Chilled Water:

Trial 1: 15 seconds Trial 2: 12 seconds Trial 3: 13 seconds [average of 13 seconds]

Water in Room Temperature:

Trial 1: 11 seconds Trial 2: 11 seconds Trial 3: 11 seconds

Water in Hot Water:

Trial 1: Did not rise Trial 2: Did not rise Trial 3: Did not rise

As can be seen by our data, our prediction was wrong; the disc did not rise in the hot water.

Jen's picture

Enzymes reacted fastest at

Enzymes reacted fastest at the highest concentration, at the right temperature and at a neutral pH. We believe that the reasons the enzyme performed this way are for molecular reasons beyond our observation which we cannot explain, since we do not know the composition of the enzyme and the way it specifically works with the H2O2. We do not believe that the enzyme is alive because it does not appear to be an improbable assembly: it looks just like a glass of water, and if shaken up it would still appear as a clear, colorless liquid. It only reacts when mixed with something else and under certain conditions, so it does not seem to be semi autonomous or homeostatic.

The enzyme can only make use of up to a certain point of energy. After that point, the extra energy cannot be used and thus interferes with the reaction. This is observable on our graphs of temperature and pH, where the rate of reaction decreases after the graph peaks.

In future experiments, we would like to devise ways of determining how the enzyme reacts with chemicals to break them down and produce a reaction.
Ruth Goodlaxson's picture

Part IV: Temperature

By Ruth Goodlaxson and Samar Aryani

We were responsible for part IV of the lab, concerning temperature. We tested the time it took for a filter disc, saturated in Catalase B, to rise to the top of 50 ml of hydrogen peroxide. We tested this in chilled water, water at room temperature, and hot water. Our prediction before starting the experiment was that the filter disc would rise slowly in the chilled water, faster in the room temperature, and the fastest in the hot water.

Our times for each temperature were as follows:

Chilled Water:

Trial 1: 15 seconds Trial 2: 12 seconds Trial 3: 13 seconds [average of 13 seconds]

Water in Room Temperature:

Trial 1: 11 seconds Trial 2: 11 seconds Trial 3: 11 seconds

Water in Hot Water:

Trial 1: Did not rise Trial 2: Did not rise Trial 3: Did not rise

As can be seen by our data, our prediction was wrong; the disc did not rise in the hot water.

Kendra's picture

Kendra and Ashley's Lab!

For this lab, we had to conduct Part II: Enzyme Concentration Effects on Rate. Our hypothesis for our experiment was that the higher the concentration of enzymes, the faster the rate of reaction. For these tests, we used 20ml of Catalase B, C and D and 40 ml of stock 3% of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here are our observations:

 Trial  Catalase B  Catalase C  Catalase D 
 1  8 seconds  18 seconds  24 seconds
 2  9 seconds  17 seconds  25 seconds
 3  11 seconds  16 seconds  24 seconds
 4  11 seconds  17 seconds  24 seconds

 

We found that our hypothesis was ultimately true. The higher the concentration of enzymes in a given catalase, the faster the reaction with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

kharmon's picture

Effects of pH on Enzyme Activity

Kyree Harmon

Kerlyne Jean

The rate of catalase activity at pH 2.0 was 44 seconds, 45 seconds, and 44 seconds.

The rate of catalase activity at pH 7.4 was 25 seconds, 23 seconds, and 19 seconds.

The rate of catalase activity at pH 10.4 was 27 seconds, 27 seconds, and 24 seconds.

Our inital hypothesis was that the more acidic the pH, the faster the reaction would be. However, our observations are not consistent with these thoughts. Based on our observations, the more basic the pH, the faster the reaction. However, the discrepancies between neutral and the more acidic pH are not necessarily supportive of this summary and require further observation.

Jen's picture

Lab Report: Part II: Enzyme Concentration Effects on Rate

Jennifer Bonczar
Catrina Mueller
Marie Sager

When immersed in catalyse B and then placed in the H2O2, the filter discs rose to the top on average of 11.333 seconds.

When immersed in catalyse C and then placed in the H2O2, the filter discs rose to the top on average of 17.75 seconds.

When immersed in catalyse D and then placed in the H2O2, the filter discs rose to the top on average of 27.25 seconds.

Based on our observations, it would seem that catalyse B hastens the reaction the fastest, followed by catalyse C and then catalyse D.

It is possible that catalyses C and D are progressively more diluted than catalyse B, or that catalyses C and D are completely different substances from catalyse B.