Cloning: Right or Wrong

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Biology 103
2000 First Web Report
On Serendip

Cloning: Right or Wrong

Julie Kwon

With the advancement and expansion of technology science has been able to achieve new wonders. These improvements and discoveries in science have allowed the human race to explore and learn more about the world. One such phenomenon is cloning. Cloning has opened the doors to explore human beings in a way that was once never possible. With cloning the human body, as well as other organisms, will be studied. Cloning and genetic engineering will both come into play to improve scientific knowledge, but is cloning beneficial?

Cloning attempts has occurred as early as 1952, and the first successful transfer of embryonic cells occurred in 1970 (1), (5). Ian Wilmut, the scientist famous for the "Dolly" cloning experiment has paved the way for a completely different thought. There were other organisms that were cloned but what made "Dolly" unique was that instead of cells being taken from an embryo "Dolly" was created by using DNA from an adult ewe(3). The process of cloning was discovered to be simpler than what was thought. The first step is to take the cells from the udder of a Finn Dorset ewe and place them in a culture with low concentrations of nutrients causing it to starve and ultimately stop cell division and active genes (3). While this is occurring an unfertilized egg cell is taken from a Blackface ewe with its DNA filled nucleus taken out leaving a nucleus free egg cell that will later produce an embryo (3). Next with the aid of an electric pulse the cells from the udder of a Finn Dorset ewe and the unfertilized egg cell with no nucleus is fused together to begin cell division which will later turn into an embryo which will be placed in the uterus of another Blackface ewe(3). Eventually the Blackface ewe will give birth to a new genetically identical Finn Dorset ewe(3). With the creation of "Dolly" the doors of human cloning has opened the controversy and complications of cloning.

The cloning process is not yet perfected nor one hundred percent accurate, in fact, it took Ian Wilmut more than 277 attempts before the successful creation of a "healthy viable lamb" (1). Furthermore, Ian Wilmut explains that mistakes where made in his procedure and there is uncertainty whether a fetus or adult cell was used in his steps of creating "Dolly" (1). Cloning of humans will be a much more difficult task and a huge risk where a number of things can go wrong causing malformation and diseases in the human body (1). It involved a slightly different process where a somatic cell must be taken from the female. These somatic cells will be harder to work with because they are specialized cells where genes are "turned off" and unable to turn back "on" (1). In addition, the "human clone" will be a "time-delayed identical twin" (1). Because of these complications and imperfections the government has taken action with the proposal of the Cloning Prohibition Act of 1997 by President Bill Clinton (1), (4). With this bill there would be no "implantation of cloned cells into the human (1). President Clinton believes that "any discovery that teaches upon human creation is not simply a matter of scientific inquiry but also a matter of morality and spirituality" (1). In addition to the actions of the President the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) agrees that no human cloning shall take place because at the present time it is not justified to produce a human child by the cloning procedure used to create "Dolly" (1), (4). The NBAC stresses that there is potentially a greater risk with human error as well as having numerous failed attempts before creating a perfect clone (1), (4). They are concerned about the psychological damage and the disappearance of individuality if human cloning became a common practice (1). Both the President and the NBAC find it morally wrong and currently inappropriate to put human cloning into practice.

There are numerous ways where cloning will further aid in scientific development and help the advancement of scientific knowledge of humans. Human cloning can allow rebirth of deceased humans, cure diseases especially those related to genetics, and discover new data and ideas (2). It can prevent endangered species from disappearing as well as allow healthier human beings(2), (5). It will allow doctors to research and determine the cause of spontaneous abortions as well as research rapid cell growth of cancer cells (1). (2). New organs that genetically match the recipient may be produced as well as allow regeneration of nerve tissues and other damaged tissues, and further study in genetics, human body development, and medicine (1). (2). (5). Agricultural and livestock can also be improved where scientist can alter clone organisms with preferable better traits or ideal characteristics (2). All this will allow the people of science to have an in depth research of the human body.

What is the downfall of human cloning? One would be the world lack of genetic diversity (2). The world will become an ideal living environment with "perfect people" that are all genetically alike (2). It may also instigate fraud and bad practice as the Black Market gets involved in selling stolen or defected clones (1). Because cloning is generally a new process and still in it's early stages there would be many uncertainty and risks (1). The procedure may actually cause more deaths in human beings where physical harm can be done to an embryo as well as a child. Because a perfect human being can be created, humans that do not have the desired character traits will not be socially accepted(1), (4).

"Opponents and supporters of human cloning agree that at the current time the technology is not safe enough to use on humans" (1). With the facts given it is evident that human cloning should not be practiced in the near future. Looking at both the advantages and disadvantages you observe that the advantages will further aid development and advancement of science and the disadvantages show that it will greatly affect moral and social issues. Though human cloning will improve the science society and the human race there is a far greater risk involved in cloning humans. Furthermore, with the active involvement of government prohibiting human cloning and the controversy surrounding this issue it is an unjustified procedure to practice. Therefore, unless technology has improved to perfect the cloning procedure as well as an understanding of the moral issues behind human cloning is observed there should be no human clone present in our society.

WWW Sources

1)Human Cloning

2)cloning

3)Cloning 1 2 3

4)National Bioethics Advisory Commission

5)Cloning Special Report



Comments made prior to 2007
your document 'right or wrong' on human cloning really helped, It was straight to the point and easy to understand ... Kiara, 24 February 2006

Comments

Anonymous's picture

cloning

cloning is stupid ppl be talkin about how they want to clone animals to eat them why make animals if you going to eat them it doesnt even sound right!!!

Cole's picture

What if we can't eat animals?

What if we lose all "good meat" animals and starve. sure we could go vegiterian and eat the grass... Or clone animals and live forever. (until the sun dies...)

Anonymous's picture

All u guys talking about how

All u guys talking about how god wouldnt want this, think about it this way:

If he made humans he must have made them to do something for him or something in that sought, so he might have wanted this to happen.

Anonymous's picture

laeve out religion

I think that religion should not be shoved down throats. you can't tell someone to beleive in god unless they ask you to. i dont always beleive in Him, but im not gonna tell you He's not real. also, i beleive in abortion because you dont know the story behind it. What if its a poor single woman that couldn't support it? would you rather the baby suffer THEN die? what if it's just a stupid teenager? Would you want to hear from her when you're older " oh you were just a stupid accident that happened in high school." what if protection fails and u can't go through having a baby? dont say its against gods will b/ some people just arent meant to be parents.
also, i beleive cloning humans is helpful. i beleive we should wait until we know how it will affect us. it would lead to helpful drug research and cosemetic testing.

brittanie's picture

The solution

people should deal with their consequences of a bad choice. the "stupid teenager" shouldn't have had sex in the first place. if someone doesn't want or can't handle the responsibilities of a child...then they shouldn't put themselves in the position to get pregnant! the act of premarital sex IS against God's will.
Because this arguement will come up, victims of sexual assault. i know i can't understand what it's like, but they still shouldn't get an abortion. they could give the kid up for adoption or give it to a family member that wanted to raise it.
imagine all the infertile people out there who want babies, yet there are selfish people killing them because they don't want to grow up and have the responsibilities.

the only reasoning i said all that is because i know i will never be stupid enough to put myself in that position, but even if i did somehow get pregnant, i would never murder an unborn baby.

Huhialala's picture

Just stop

Just stop

Serendip Visitor's picture

??

but they could have never put there self in that position to have had to get an abortion, protected sex, and be carefull only exception is rape

Anonymous's picture

they don't have to look to

they don't have to look to abortion...if they can't raise the kid..don't kill it, give it to a family that will love it and will take care of it.
would you rather the child suffer, die, or live with a family it can be loved by?

guess you didn't think of that . did you?

and why would the parent grow up and tell their kid " you were just an accident in highschool." im pretty sure no parent would say that to their kid especially by the time its old enough to even understand what the parent is saying to them. GOOD ONE.

Serendip Visitor's picture

excuse me?!?!?

there are plenty of other babies in this world. i don't think it should be considered killing when it hasnt even been born. what if no one wants to adopt the baby?? of course it you be great to find a loving family, but its not that simple.
eventually, the kid would realize how old the mother was when they were born and THINK that they were just an accident. sometimes the most hurtful things to hear are the ones you aren't told.

Serendip Visitor's picture

i believe that abortion is

i believe that abortion is bad...i also believe that no one is ever an accident...if someone exists then it is because God had already planned it.
human beings have a body, soul and spirit when God created them....how about cloned humans? they have a body...but do they have a soul and a spirit???

Serendip Visitor's picture

LEAVE OUT RELIGION!!!!!!!

just forget about god and those theories. continue to think whatever the hell you'd like after reading my message or replying but for now, only science exsistes...
people dont always plan pregnancies!! sometimes protections fail, people just cant help from getting pregnant. and the person isn't ready to have a kid yet or ever. i think abortion can be dangerous if used too much by too many people, but populations are getting out of control. what about people in china?? they're only allowed to have one child per family so what are they gonna do if they accidentally have another kid??
and i personly think that clones should only be used for testing.

Anonymous's picture

actually i know several

actually i know several people who have been adopted and are treated horribly
he is right the chances of someone under that much stress thinking to give their child away wouldnt even look at that option if they didnt want the child they would usually do the much cruler thing. take a walk in the park and goodbye unwanted child.

Army Brat.'s picture

Optional...

People have their own opinion on stuff, it's life, it's what we do, [Judge, judge, judge continuously judge]... My personal opinion on the issue must be that I do not believe in animal cloning! Or any type of cloning in the near future, simply because of all the mistaken miscommunications that could occur...

Anonymous's picture

Cloning IS WRONG!

If we were suppose to have identical twins we would. cloning is wrong.God made us to be the way we are we should not be test like animals and the animals they should be treated with respect we are not things you can toy with. CLONING IS WRONG ! if god wanted it it would have already happend ages ago ! Scients should cure cancer instead of tryna clone people like freaks of nature.

Anonymous's picture

what i think

i think that cloning is good but not for hmans.

Anonymous's picture

yea if a animal goes almost

yea if a animal goes almost extencted they can be saved.. but that could also killl them...

Anonymous132's picture

Dolly died older but earlier

Dolly died older but earlier of chronic lung problems

Anonymous132's picture

No one ever told the Doc that

No one ever told the Doc that if he took a live female, left her alone with a compatible male, and came back in several months there would be a third animas, freshly "cloned" from the mother's womb, born?

Megan's picture

Cloning like Star Wars

Have you ever watched Star Wars? There were millions of clones. Sure, they were good soldiers, but what ended up happening to the Jedi? Most of them were killed off. If Yoda and Obi Wan got killed, then Palpatine would have ruled the universe. Palpatine was evil and would have brought the universe to destruction. So, in essence, cloning is evil. However, I think everyone should have an Avatar. That would be cool!

bobbi sayer's picture

stuuuuuuuuf

cloning is very much like star wars and i totally agree with the fact that its wrong and its playing god but religion should stay out of it for now

Anonymous's picture

CLONING IS WRONG !!!!!!!!!!

CLONIN IS WRONG I EVERY WAY. THERE IS ONLY ONE GOD HE CREATED US AND MEN ARE TRYING TO BE HIM BUT ITS NOT RIGHT. PEOPLE SHOULN'T BE DOING THIS. AN EMBRYO IS A HUMAN BEING AND SCIENTISTS ARE KILLING THEM. THEY DON'T HAVE THE RIGHT TO MESS WITH PEOPLE'S LIVES. SURE PEOPLE MAY SAY THAT THERE ARE BENEFITS FOR THIS LIKE SAVING PEOPLE'S LIVES BUT AT WHAT COST? AT THE COST OF ANOTHER PERSONS LIFE. GOD IS THE ONE WHO DECIDES WHO LIVES AND WHO DIES AND NO ONE ELSE HAS THE RIGHT TO DECIDE THAT. GOD IS THE CREATOR OF EVERYTHING HE MADE EVERYTHING. HE IS EVERLASTING HE HAS EXISTED FOREVER AND THERE IS NO ONE LIKE HIM. HE IS PERFECT IN EVERY WAY AND PEOPLE CANNOT GO BY TRYING TO DO WHAT HE DOES WE ARE NOT CELLS AND ORGANS WE ARE NOT JUST A BODY WE HAVE SOULS. WE THINK, WE HAVE REASON. HOW DO YOU EXPLAIN THAT OUT OF EVERY LIVING THING HUMANS ARE THE ONLY ONES CAPLABLE OF UNDERSTANDING OF THINKING? WHY DON'T ANIMALS HAVE THE SAME CAPACITY? THERE IS A GOD AND HE MADE US WE DIDN'T JUST EXIST OUT OF NOWHERE. GOD IS REAL AND HE IS OUR CREATOR AND NOBODY SHOUL BE TRYING TO BE HIM.

Some guy's picture

Dude what is wrong with u???

Do u actually believe all the crap about god deciding our lives and all that? How is he 'PERFECT'??? And just so u know there is no connection between religious and science.

Serendip Visitor's picture

if

if god was real and cared about us he would stop hiding and show himself to us.

brittanie's picture

Open your eyes

He's not hiding. people just aren't looking for Him, therefor not seeing Him.

Serendip Visitor's picture

religion

sweetie, dont read this if you cant stop to think about science. truely beleive what you want, but if you're going to read an artical on clonning, you have to think about science.

Anonymous's picture

please justify your last

please justify your last sentence.then come back.

A Friend..'s picture

Agree

Dear "Cloning is WRONG!!!!!"
I quite like you. i also agree with you. i cannot stand to sit in biology class, listening to the teach talk about how our earth is dying and how it has been around for billions of years...that is just bull. Coning is wrong to me because people are so ignorant that they cant accept the fact that we have a higher force looking out for us..they're scared. so more power to you
P.S. your grammar is horrible.

Derk's picture

I agree in every way

I agree in every way

SAS's picture

Cloaning

I totally agree with you! Life is best when it is alive!

Anonymous's picture

Duh!

Seriously?? Are you guys seriously asking what God has to do with cloning? God has everything to do with it. Everything we do should revolve around God. Atheists--just because you don't believe in God doesn't mean you don't need to have morals. Common sense tells us that if we go through with human cloning the world would be a disaster. Just imagine the world with 75% of it being clones. Not good. It would be chaos and eventually the world will end. And by that time, I hope you atheists have thought about where you're going to end up. Just saying!

Mr. Okay's picture

Atheism isn't inherently wrong

Why do people think that religion is the only way to have a good moral code?

I am an atheist. I believe that once you die, you stop existing. But the entire world will keep existing after you die. So, my "afterlife" is being remembered by other people as a good person. If I accomplish something great, then I'll be remembered as a good person.

Does this make sense?

I've also always hoped that if there *is* a higher power (which I don't think there is, but I could be wrong), they will understand that positive contributions to humanity can outweigh devoutness to themselves. What if a small tribe from a small Pacific island turns out to have the real true religion? What will we do? Every Christian will have spent a LIFETIME doing good things for a god that, it turns out, doesn't exist. Every religion claims to be the real one - this is why I chose none.

Please understand this.

Serendip Visitor's picture

ugh im so sick of people

ugh im so sick of people talking about religion!!! just cuz you're atheiast doesnt mean youre going to hell, or beleive in clonning, it means we beleive in science.
what about make-up or drugs?? how should it be tested if not on clones?? until we can make g-nomes, clones are the best option. or would you rather they be tested on a poor inosent bunny? making 1 less bunny, but with clones, no decrease in population? maybe we could test on humans and you'll be first.
im not saying clone every person in the world, just a few for testing and they can be killed off when we're done with them!!

brittanie's picture

"cuz you're atheiast doesnt

"cuz you're atheiast doesnt mean youre going to hell"

actually, it does.

tessa's picture

hell no

what happened to honor thy mother and father? a clone requires either a male or female to be brought into this world therefore who is going to be this child's mother or father.we must also bear in mind that this clone will also have feelings and would one day ask the question "where is my mom or dad?"

Anonymous's picture

a clone can still have a

a clone can still have a mother and father. reasearch it you'll see

Anonymous's picture

I agree with all of you, a

I agree with all of you, a clone is a human that has been made in a lab, they are not just a freak of nature it's just a human that was made in the lab. Some people in the world today, they where just made because the femael could not have a child.

Anonymous's picture

no cloning

cloning gets rid of diversity in the human race. so if one sickness attacks us we will all be wiped out and that would suck.and everyone would hate the defective clones. watch the movie "Gattaca" they arent clones but its sort of the same idea. :)

hellooooo :)'s picture

wrong wrong wrongg

i think human cloning is a disgrace. it should not be allowed. unless the reason is fully agreeable. but, it is unfair on the person who is being cloned, because if they were cloned from a old woman then, the child who had been cloned, is cloned as a old woman mentally, but a child physically. that is probably the main reason that clones die younger than non-clones do.

Anonymous's picture

There are so many things that

There are so many things that could go wrong during and after the reproductive cloning procedure. “Typically, very few cloning attempts are successful”. Even if the surgery goes well and the baby is born it is in all likelihood the child will grow up with “mutilation” and there life would almost certainly end in an early death. There were studies in Australia that showed a cloned sheep that seemed to be living a healthy life and then one day just died. She was still very young so figured that it was not from old age. The question still remains on what the cause of her death was. Most cloned animals tend to have more “compromised” immune systems and higher chance of infection, and diseases. Though they have no proof of how it will turn out with a human research shows that “Human reproductive cloning is likely to have similar negative outcomes as animal cloning.” So the facts show that at the moment cloning would be much too dangerous to attempt on a human.
The religious and moral values against cloning are much to strong to put up for debate. Many people believe that if cloning did come into effect then they would be able to cure some diseases by taking out body parts from the clone. If people didn’t die of diseases then the worlds would become way over populated. There are a lot of religious debates about cloning too. “Some claim that cloned humans may be born without souls. They speculate that the soul enters the body when a sperm fertilizes an ovum. Since there is no sperm involved in cloning, perhaps the fetus would develop without a soul.”

Anonymous's picture

My 9th grade biology essay, which talks about my opinion

With the technology that we have today, scientists and experts have been recently coming up with ways to do many new experiments. One experiment that has left many people in awe is the cloning of humans. Tons of people have been looking at this as a good thing that can help benefit our society while others look at this as a wrong doing that goes against nature. I am one of the people who are against it. It is scientifically said that human cloning can actually fix the diseases that are implanted in our genes. Human cloning can even ‘perfect’ a person, like for example, preventing them from getting sick. To me, and many other people, being perfect is not what life is about. These so-called perfect clones will most likely not feel normal. They wouldn’t know how it’s like to have a fever or have a runny nose. Not getting sick may seem like a good thing yet in actuality it’s not normal. Everyone who’s normal, and has normal genes gets sick once in a while. That is just the way life is. And for a ‘perfect’ clone, their life would not be normal. Human cloning also goes against the rules of God. God has said that a human being should be created from a male and a female, not by scientifically removing DNA’s and inserting new cells. God also said that each person is different. The reason God did this is for one specific reason, for everyone to be special in his or her own way. Now, this can’t happen if everyone in the world started having clones. The cloning of humans is still new, it is not considered 100% safe for actual human beings. The process of cloning includes transferring many cells, genes, and other things found in the human body. So you can say that this experiment is very risky. There may be some type of physical malfunction with the process by any chance and can probably cause the actual human to die. Everyone in the world has the right to be a unique person. Cloning has already been done and is said to be successful. Now, what would happen if there were clones of half of the people in the world? Not only will there people running around with the same physical features, but in the future, if this method were to end up in the hands of the wrong person, he or she could clone a human with just a strand of hair without the permission of the human being. To sum it all up, human cloning is very unethical.

-I just copy and pasted my essay for biology. ahahha.

Anonymous's picture

you can generate a clone from

you can generate a clone from a male and female. so how does cloning go against the "rules" of god

Anonymous's picture

Clones

I think human cloning is good. It will give us scientific and medical advancments.

Anonymous's picture

umm

im a 15 gurl and cloning is only wrong when its human and animals
if u have parkinsons disease and need treatment straight away why not go for thereputic cloning???

Anonymous's picture

If its not a human or animal

If its not a human or animal what the hell else is it going to be? A plant? yea thats real practicle.

Serendip Visitor's picture

cells and body parts stupid.

cells and body parts stupid. a girl's skin was burnt off, so scientists took skin cells, cloned them and replaced the burnt skin with new skin. and the body couldnt reject it because it was her own skin

Anonymous's picture

Cloning

No offense but are you an idiot? Cloning isnt just the cloning of humans or animals. Organs and tissues can also be cloned to cure cancer. Think about that. Healthy tissues can be cloned to replace cancerous tissues found in skin, colon or even neck cancer.The same goes for organs, or even glands, such as your lung, kidney, bladder, thyroid, liver and many others. All of these organs or glands can be cloned from healthy genetic tissues and can replace the cancerous organ or gland as a cure for cancer. So next time you think about the word cloning, dont think that it only pertains to cloning humans or animals. The process of cloning organs or tissues can save many lives.

Anonymous's picture

Thats called stem cells and

Thats called stem cells and you are killing babies. if you say, "well, embryoes arnt humans" your wrong. test tube babies (even though its completly wrong!) can live on their own apart from their mother. the only difference from an embryo and an 80 year old is a couple meals and years!

Anonymous's picture

cloning is right

Theraputic cloning is right because it dosent clone a whole new being and it can cure some incurable disease such as parkinsons disease, but to betruthuly who cares if we kill cells i mean eery time you itch or swallow you kill hundreds of cells. im 14 studing it for part of my GCSEs so just think about it......its not a animal or human, you kill cells when you take antiobiotics

Anonymous's picture

Cloning is wrong because you

Cloning is wrong because you are playing the role of God. You arnt making life for PROCREATION like we are supposed to, we are cloning humans for parts.

Serendip Visitor's picture

no ones tyring to be "God",

no ones tyring to be "God", just tring to save lives. want people to die of cancer, miss-tested drugs or cosemetics? i dont think "God" would want that, do you?

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