Cloning: Right or Wrong

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Biology 103
2000 First Web Report
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Cloning: Right or Wrong

Julie Kwon

With the advancement and expansion of technology science has been able to achieve new wonders. These improvements and discoveries in science have allowed the human race to explore and learn more about the world. One such phenomenon is cloning. Cloning has opened the doors to explore human beings in a way that was once never possible. With cloning the human body, as well as other organisms, will be studied. Cloning and genetic engineering will both come into play to improve scientific knowledge, but is cloning beneficial?

Cloning attempts has occurred as early as 1952, and the first successful transfer of embryonic cells occurred in 1970 (1), (5). Ian Wilmut, the scientist famous for the "Dolly" cloning experiment has paved the way for a completely different thought. There were other organisms that were cloned but what made "Dolly" unique was that instead of cells being taken from an embryo "Dolly" was created by using DNA from an adult ewe(3). The process of cloning was discovered to be simpler than what was thought. The first step is to take the cells from the udder of a Finn Dorset ewe and place them in a culture with low concentrations of nutrients causing it to starve and ultimately stop cell division and active genes (3). While this is occurring an unfertilized egg cell is taken from a Blackface ewe with its DNA filled nucleus taken out leaving a nucleus free egg cell that will later produce an embryo (3). Next with the aid of an electric pulse the cells from the udder of a Finn Dorset ewe and the unfertilized egg cell with no nucleus is fused together to begin cell division which will later turn into an embryo which will be placed in the uterus of another Blackface ewe(3). Eventually the Blackface ewe will give birth to a new genetically identical Finn Dorset ewe(3). With the creation of "Dolly" the doors of human cloning has opened the controversy and complications of cloning.

The cloning process is not yet perfected nor one hundred percent accurate, in fact, it took Ian Wilmut more than 277 attempts before the successful creation of a "healthy viable lamb" (1). Furthermore, Ian Wilmut explains that mistakes where made in his procedure and there is uncertainty whether a fetus or adult cell was used in his steps of creating "Dolly" (1). Cloning of humans will be a much more difficult task and a huge risk where a number of things can go wrong causing malformation and diseases in the human body (1). It involved a slightly different process where a somatic cell must be taken from the female. These somatic cells will be harder to work with because they are specialized cells where genes are "turned off" and unable to turn back "on" (1). In addition, the "human clone" will be a "time-delayed identical twin" (1). Because of these complications and imperfections the government has taken action with the proposal of the Cloning Prohibition Act of 1997 by President Bill Clinton (1), (4). With this bill there would be no "implantation of cloned cells into the human (1). President Clinton believes that "any discovery that teaches upon human creation is not simply a matter of scientific inquiry but also a matter of morality and spirituality" (1). In addition to the actions of the President the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) agrees that no human cloning shall take place because at the present time it is not justified to produce a human child by the cloning procedure used to create "Dolly" (1), (4). The NBAC stresses that there is potentially a greater risk with human error as well as having numerous failed attempts before creating a perfect clone (1), (4). They are concerned about the psychological damage and the disappearance of individuality if human cloning became a common practice (1). Both the President and the NBAC find it morally wrong and currently inappropriate to put human cloning into practice.

There are numerous ways where cloning will further aid in scientific development and help the advancement of scientific knowledge of humans. Human cloning can allow rebirth of deceased humans, cure diseases especially those related to genetics, and discover new data and ideas (2). It can prevent endangered species from disappearing as well as allow healthier human beings(2), (5). It will allow doctors to research and determine the cause of spontaneous abortions as well as research rapid cell growth of cancer cells (1). (2). New organs that genetically match the recipient may be produced as well as allow regeneration of nerve tissues and other damaged tissues, and further study in genetics, human body development, and medicine (1). (2). (5). Agricultural and livestock can also be improved where scientist can alter clone organisms with preferable better traits or ideal characteristics (2). All this will allow the people of science to have an in depth research of the human body.

What is the downfall of human cloning? One would be the world lack of genetic diversity (2). The world will become an ideal living environment with "perfect people" that are all genetically alike (2). It may also instigate fraud and bad practice as the Black Market gets involved in selling stolen or defected clones (1). Because cloning is generally a new process and still in it's early stages there would be many uncertainty and risks (1). The procedure may actually cause more deaths in human beings where physical harm can be done to an embryo as well as a child. Because a perfect human being can be created, humans that do not have the desired character traits will not be socially accepted(1), (4).

"Opponents and supporters of human cloning agree that at the current time the technology is not safe enough to use on humans" (1). With the facts given it is evident that human cloning should not be practiced in the near future. Looking at both the advantages and disadvantages you observe that the advantages will further aid development and advancement of science and the disadvantages show that it will greatly affect moral and social issues. Though human cloning will improve the science society and the human race there is a far greater risk involved in cloning humans. Furthermore, with the active involvement of government prohibiting human cloning and the controversy surrounding this issue it is an unjustified procedure to practice. Therefore, unless technology has improved to perfect the cloning procedure as well as an understanding of the moral issues behind human cloning is observed there should be no human clone present in our society.

WWW Sources

1)Human Cloning

2)cloning

3)Cloning 1 2 3

4)National Bioethics Advisory Commission

5)Cloning Special Report



Comments made prior to 2007
your document 'right or wrong' on human cloning really helped, It was straight to the point and easy to understand ... Kiara, 24 February 2006

Comments

MEEEEEEEE!!!! =)'s picture

WHY WOULD YOU?

ok well first of all its the stupidest thing ever!! and why would you want someone exactly like you? that would get way annoying! and why do we need more people in the world that commit crimes? ITS SO DUMB! god made us who we are and if your different than everyone else than OBVIOUSLY thats how your supposed to be...you cant just go to the doctor and say "change my child..there not perfect." NOBODY is perfect so to all you dumb people out there i think that you should stop doing all this genetic engineering and GET A LIFE! DUH!..................................P.S..all you people that think genetic engineering is cool..ITS NOT! so let the kids be who there supposed to be! not who you want them to be...

phanomanon's picture

we agree!!!!!!!!

reproductive cloning is sooooooooo...... wrong, who wouldn't want to be unique and we shouldn't have the right to decide who some one turns out to be!!!!! But we're all for theraputic cloning!!!!!!!!!! whoop whoop :-)

Anonymous's picture

total agree......

cloning's just wrong, why don't some people see this, i'm doin my Gcse's on cloning and some of the stories we've studyed are horrable and so inhumane wat is this world coming to? z-( guuurrrrrrrrrrr....

nnvnvn's picture

clones

why wouldnt you make a clone it is perfectly fine. and when you say ooo your killing someone your wrong because it is only a bundle of about 100 cells. We kill hundreds of cells just swallowing or itching our skin.

Anonymous's picture

Cloning- Not just a scientific Enquiry! Horror!

It is great achievement for scientists to perform clone,from results, cloning produces imperfect creatures. Humans must not be cloned, it is not only dis-respect upon the dignity of man but also to the Almighty Creator.
We might emplore the highly developed minds of the homo sapiens to explore how diseases are cured using the clone, but all men must remain mortal. Anything having a beginning also have an end therefore cloning humans(Imagine that) for any reasons remains un-acceptable and horror.

"any discovery that teaches upon human creation is not simply a matter of scientific inquiry but also a matter of morality and spirituality" Bill Clinton.

Anonymous's picture

this is wrong

we are playing the role of god and how is cloning going to help us all it is doing is hurting us

Anonymous's picture

risk

Well we deffinatly dont need another hillary clinton but it doesnt matter because they shouldnt do it. most of the clones die anyways. and when they dont die they have major health problems. so basically all cloning is doing is using up money.

bob bobberton's picture

reasons for no human cloning

think about what would happen if we cloned people like bush, do we really want another person who can not speak correct english

Zachary Henkelman of DeForest, wisconsin's picture

the risks

It will be risking human lives by human cloning. it took the sheep dolly 277 trys and many sheep died in the prosses. Do we realy whant to put human lives in jeperdy JUST so we can find out if it is possible?

Anonymous's picture

they aren't human lives they

they aren't human lives they are clones. the biggest break through of science have to begin somewhere.

Anonymous's picture

That makes no sense, because

That makes no sense, because they would try it on humans until they got it right. You're foolish to think they would try something as cloning on a human if it wasn't 100% safe.

Anonymous's picture

nothing is ever 100% safe.

nothing is ever 100% safe. Driving, drinking water, bla bla bla, and yes, scientists do things that aren't safe just for the sake of science all the time.

Just look at Dr. Mangola of Hitler's Nazi regime. He decided to try to modify people by taking limbs from other people/species to try to make super soldiers. This is where most of our limb transplant technology today has derived from, as well as genetic modifications.

Anonymous's picture

Even if they think it is

Even if they think it is perfect something could happen and kill a human. Its not right to experiment on animals anymore than it is right on humans.

I disagree's picture

ya,lives that wouldent even

ya,lives that wouldent even be there if we didnt try to clone so what is the diffrence?

Anonymous's picture

its still a life

its still a life regardless of whether it was made for cloning, imagine if that was you

Anonymous's picture

WHY I THINK ITS WRONG

GOD MAKES BABIES AND NOT PLASTIC PETRE DISHES

Anonymous's picture

God made us die why do you

God made us die why do you try to say his jugment on taking them out of the world was wrong by cloning dead people

Anonymous's picture

when you clone someone they

when you clone someone they are not the same person they were cloned from. if i cloned myself my clone would only look like me. it is my life experiences that have made me who i am. if god didn't want us to clone he would have not made it an option for us to do. god gave us the ability to create and to destroy, but since the early ages all we have done is destroy. by cloning we can learn a lot about out own anatomy, health, and the evolution of our race. every one says its unethical to clone humans but is waging a war in which thousands sometimes millions of people die in ethical? well it didn't matter if it is ethical cause every country in the world has done it. god wants the world to be at peace, and cloning isn't a topic that causes conflict. therefore cloning for good reasons isn't something that god would see as a rebellion against his judgment.

Anonymous's picture

i thought god created

i thought god created everything?in cluding petri dishes

Anonymous's picture

i would like to say in

i would like to say in reaction to the comment 'god makes babies not petri dishes' that i hate to burst your bubble, but god doesnt exist. how can we live in the 21st century and still believe this fairy tale?!

Anonymous's picture

we believe in this "fairy

we believe in this "fairy tale" because it is true. From generatoin to generation, people believe in God and we've seen Him work through lives of people. We have faith that He is real. From the fact that many people believe in God for so many years, we know that it's true He's real. if he wasn't wouldn't our faith die and nobody would believe, sooo we know is here and real. so many of use believe in Him today

Anonymous's picture

this is your belief, which

this is your belief, which doesn't necessarily make this true. Now, i'm not saying that god does exist, but this is a very biased OPINION. I myself am an agnostic, meaning that i don't know if god really exists or not. But this is a very blatantly ignorant comment, posted by an ignorant user.

You absolutely cannot say that god 100% does not exist. just as with any science this is 90% THEORY.

Anonymous's picture

Off subject.

Why do you have to say things that discriminate and hurt people? You may believe that, but that doesn't mean you have any right to treat people like that. Just back off.

kk's picture

what

ok, first off the back GOD is real i dont know what dream you are living in but i hope you come back to reality any way cloning is wrong because if god intended on people coming in pairs he would of made us like that THERES A REASON FOR EVERYTHING also everything in the bible that god said would happen "HAPPEND". I hope you dont take this as a mean message i just wanted to tell you what i think anyway have a blessed day

Anonymous's picture

for your information there

for your information there is a difference between fairytales and God. It's called belief. If you refuse to believe thats your problem but don't go saying crap that may offend others just because you believe in something else, or in nothing at all. Oh and for the record, if you are ever in a sticky situation where you may wish you had made a different decision no one is going to scream out "i told you so" but maybe someone in your head will convince you that He does exist and has been there for you even while you "live in the 21st century"

Anonymous's picture

i agree with totally...

god really does not exist and we were all born true atheists and it was stories that corrupted us into believing in the make believe just like a child will believe in monsters. if you dont believe in the big bang boom theory because you ask where the mass came from yet you believe in "god" then your a hypocrite. yet i still dont believe in the whole cloning business and it has no religious influence.

Anonymous's picture

cloning is wrong

there is a god. you con't need to dis christians for beliving the truth. god is the only one who should be allowed to make people. no one is a true "identicle clon" to anyone. that's how things are and always should be.

Ka-Tina howard's picture

cloning is wronge

you shouldn't clone people because that not what god put use on this earth for and and he wouldn't want to be clone because there can only be one you

Anonymous's picture

Again, this is a very

Again, this is a very blatantly ignorant, and biased response. Does no one on here have an omniscient point of view on this topic?

Flame war set aside, WHERE IS THE PROOF THAT GOD DOES OR DOES NOT EXIST? GIVE ME HARD FACTUAL EVIDENCE, OR STFU. IF YOU CANNOT PROVIDE PROOF, THEN YOU'RE MAKING FRAUDULENT CLAIMS.

I do believe in a higher power, or something of the sort, as there is intellegent design in the universe. The best analogy that I can draw is this:

If there wasn't any sort of intellegence that designed what we see, then the universe would act as a jar of marbles scattered throughout. When intellegence acts upon these marbles, they have been given definitive actions, courses, and even reasons/meanings.

T. Cole's picture

easy THE BIBLE. easiest

easy THE BIBLE. easiest proof to find and the most sold book every year. read it. if you read and study it sometime it actually gives you some pretty good clues as to how god exists, if you pick up on them. see a priest or preacher.

Anonymous's picture

OBJECTION!!

We know what happened for the last 2000 years. Great inventions and discoveries were made. How can you not acknowledge that there is a God behind all of this? Can you really say that everything we have today, all of nature, all the beauty, the earth, came by sheer chance?

Anonymous's picture

i agree

i agree when you say GOD makes babies not petre dishes...like if we were meant to be more than one person, than GOD wouldv'e made us twins or triplets...so i totally agree with you

Anonymous's picture

twins

there are twins and triplets....so it dont matter

Anonymous's picture

I think that they were

I think that they were stating that if we were meant to have a twin, then we would have one that was born to and with us, not one that was created in a test tube or the likes.

Christina Harview's picture

god?

if god made us and we make petri dishes, then god indirectly made petri dishes.

The real question is: what does this have to do with cloning?

Anonymous's picture

god makes dirt

god makes dirt

Anonymous's picture

what do you mean?

when you say "GOD makes dirt" what do you mean?

Anonymous's picture

wtf

cloneing is fine. personaly i think that u people are just crazy. god doesent even come into this. but if u want a explanaition that god is ok with it then y are we doing it. i mean if god doesnt want use doing this than we wouldnt be would we? so in the end cloneing isnt a big deal.

Anonymous's picture

kindah is cos what if

kindah is cos what if someting went wrong

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