Roles of Amish Women

hope's picture

Hope Fillingim

In Amish society there is a clear patriarchy in which gender roles are strictly defined. Amish Women are expected to marry, have children and submit to their husband’s will. There is no divorce. It is the responsibility of the wife to care for the children and the household. Her tasks include cooking, cleaning, sewing, gardening and maintaining the general welfare of the family. Only 3% of Amish women have a job outside of the household (Kraybill, 72). The husband is considered the head of the family and has the final say in spiritual and societal matters. At family meals, the husband sits at the head of the table. Despite the elevated position of the husband, major decisions are usually made jointly by husband and wife. Women have a vote in church meetings, but cannot hold positions of authority within the church. What are the reasons for this patriarchy, and should feminists feel a moral imperative to bring it down?

Perhaps one reason for the patriarchy is simply tradition in the presence of isolation from the rest of the world. Gender systems such as the Amish’s were common in preindustrial societies. And in an agricultural society insistent on self sufficiency and resistant to modern technology, it is necessary for women to have multiple children to help work on the farm. In the 1980 census it was found that the average Amish household had almost twice as many members as the average household in the rest of the county (Kraybill, 70). The large family required for farming must be fed and dressed and taken care of, so, consistent with tradition, the woman fills that needed role. Even young children are defined by the practical roll they can fill as a working member of a farm. Birth announcements from an Amish paper illustrate the gendered rolls of farm children. “Born to Brother Mennos a little dishwasher named Katie” or “Enos Ys are the parents of a little woodchopper born last week” (Kraybill & Olshan, 220). With important rolls to be filled by all, the patriarchy could be merely a matter of practicality, though the question must be asked, could Katie not fill the role of woodchopper and the Enos son the roll of dishwasher equally well? Why is gender so important?

The highly religious nature of Amish society may offers legitimacy to these strict gender roles. The Amish often take literal instruction from the Bible. Women do not question the submissive role in which they are cast because they believe their submission is consistent with the divine order of things. “The head of every man is Christ, and the head of any woman is man” (I Corrintheans 11:3). In marriage, women are instructed “Submit yourself unto your husband as unto the Lord” (Ephesians 5:22). The submissive role women play in the church is also dictated by the Bible, “A woman should learn in quietness and full submission” (I Timothy 2:11). With society structured around faith and faith structured around man, it is understandable that a patriarchy prevails and that women willingly submit to it. A failure to do so would be a denial of the culture and faith in which they have been indoctrinated their whole lives.

As much as religion serves to perpetuate the Amish patriarchy, there is also a degree to which religious teachings mitigate man’s power over and treatment of women. Men as well as women are taught to practice humility, and aggression is tempered by belief in non-violence. Men are taught to love and respect their wives. “So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies” (Ephesians 5:28). The Amish patriarchy is therefore can perhaps be distinguished from those in which women are abused and subjugated.

Feminists examining Amish culture may feel the impulse to bring down the patriarchy and liberate the oppressed Amish women. The Amish, however, do not necessarily agree with the feminist notion of what it means to be liberated. Many see professional women as a negative role model, a “distortion of God’s created order” (Kraybill, 73). One Amish man said, “We plain people laugh at the foolishness of women trying to be men. To us, women’s lib is ridiculous” (Kraybill & Olshan, 218). Perhaps the Amish’s dismissal of feminism can be understood in light of the degree of respect that Amish women receive from the community. Though women are certainly inferior in terms of social power, it could be argued that because of woman’s vital role in maintaining a functional household and family farm women equal men in terms of value and respect, a goal that many feminists are still working for.

Additionally, while many feminists have historically fought to liberate women from what they considered menial and undervalued tasks of household cooking and cleaning, Amish women do not view such tasks as menial or undervalued. A description of Emma helps illustrate the mindset of Amish women, “She knew who she was as a woman. She knew that what she did mattered. Her knowledge that her role in the family was necessary for its wellbeing permeated her life…Her work was valued, she was valued…Making a commitment to marriage and family was seen as a worthy pursuit” (Kraybill & Olshan, 222).

It is clear that women are valued in Amish society, and on some levels are even afforded types of equality and freedoms that women outside of Amish society might not be. In Amish weddings, for example, the woman is not “given away” by her father to her future husband, as is often done in non-Amish weddings. Instead, the couple walks through the door together. One Amish Author articulates nicely the prevailing view of gender roles, “The Bible teaches very clearly that men and women are equal… but being equal in worth does not mean being the same in calling” (Klaybill & Olshan, 220).

The dress code to which Amish women and men are expected to conform offers an interesting example of a freedom that may be exclusively available to Amish women. Women wear long, one piece dresses, over the bodice of which they wear a halduch, or a cape. They also wear aprons and head caps (Hostetler, 240). While at first this practice may seem highly restrictive, and while surely some Amish women find it so, it could also be seen as freeing if looked at from another perspective. Naomi Wolf argues that “…beauty has become the last restrictive institution…women…have not been freed from the social mandate to pursue beauty” (Garland-Thomson, 15). Since Amish women are actually discouraged from accentuating their physical appearance, they are perhaps free in a way that other women cannot be.

Despite the respect and the aspects of freedom experienced by women in Amish communities, some women do notice and possibly resent the discrepancy in power between women and men. One women commented “The men make the rules so that’s why more modern things are permitted in the barn than in the house…I don’t think it’s fair that we have to push the mowers to mow the lawns…We keep saying that if the men would mow the lawns there would be engines on them, and I am sure there would be…” (Kraybill, 73). However, even women who resent that men get the better tool do not seem to advocate for an erasal of the patriarchy but rather for the improvement of lawn mowers.

The Amish way of life does promote a patriarchal society that many feminists would perhaps find dreadful and oppressive, but it is important to consider the complexities of the culture as well as how it appears on the surface. Amish women may very well enjoy their lives and find value and meaning in raising a family. Or they may not. The opinions of Amish women likely vary as much as do the opinions of feminists. Amish babies are not baptized. To enter the church and become an official part of the Amish community is a choice made later in life. And whether these women chose to stay because of faith or family or connection to the land they do chose to do so. Amish women should not be viewed as oppressed but rather as willing and important participants in their culture.

Comments

Serendip Visitor's picture

You write as if you are so

You write as if you are so smart, and then you write something about breads...ie, children's "rolls", women's rolls....forgive me, but isn't the word "roles"?

Or am I just addressing the fact that most people really don't pay attention to the little things, no matter how big those little things are.

And as such a person, don't you think it behooves US to perhaps listen to and heed the words or a more detail oriented individual?

Serendip Visitor's picture

Big Deal

So she uses the words roll or rolls occasionally instead of roles... most of the time she used the correct form of the homonyms and I'm quite sure she knows the difference. Yes, a quick "find and replace" of the word role would have been nice but it's easily understood what she really meant.

Serendip Visitor's picture

amish

i love the way amish live iam looking up the roles because i am thinking about converting!:)

dtrammell's picture

It seems that weather you are

It seems that weather you are or are not a feminist you are still choosing what is in your heart!God loves ALL of us!!!!God also directs us in the way we should go!The bible teaches us to be loving to one another.Lets try a little more love instead of trying to be right!However you choose to live your life is yours,but dont fool yourself god still sees it all!!!!!I hope you all have a blessed day

Serendip Visitor's picture

my view on feminsim, by a woman.

I think that feminism has got as far as it needs to go, women are equal, and have the same rights as men, women are able to decide weather they wish to work, or stay at home and make a family. I enjoyed reading this research, its not a life i would personally choose, but a woman should still feel free to live that life if they wish too. sometimes i think women are under pressure to excell themselves and gain higher jobs, I beleve that in the rest of society, women should be educated to a certain level, because life isnt deffinate, and women need a fall back plan, because if a women decided to stay at home, and there husband died, or something happened and resulted in the husband loosing work, the woman should be able to support her self in modern society, and be able to gain employment, to suport not only herself, but her children aswell.

Serendip Visitor's picture

Oph..

I enjoyed this article and found it quite insightful. There is not much info on the topic.

My view of feminism, by a woman's comment suprised me. I do love a quote from a british feminist women who was speaking about the new movement of anti-feminist women who said if you have a vagina and you want control over it than you are a femininst!

Women are under pressurre to excell in the work place in order to keep up with men. Women today STILL do not make as much money men doing the exact same thing. Just in the workplace women are illegally judgued or not employed for the simple fact of their gender.

"the top five jobs for women did not include attorney, surgeon or CEO. They were, in order, secretaries, retail and personal sales workers (including cashiers), managers and administrators, elementary school teachers and registered nurses"

If you look at a majority of religions women do not and are not allowed to hold high positions. Across the board religion continues to opress women; look at catholics, muslums etc. The seed was planted as early as Adam and Eve. The Amish are no different but I respect their culture and beliefs.

Anonymous's picture

Bible Verse

The Bible Verse you quoted is completely unrelated. "The Bible verses used to subjugate women, which are found in the epistles written by the Apostle Paul, are often mistranslated from the Greek text and misinterpreted. Paul was restricting pagan women from disrupting church services, not restricting Christian women from leadership roles. Similarly, Paul was debunking a Greek myths about the superiority of women over men and the goddess Artemis keeping women safe in childbirth. Paul was trying to explain that the first woman came out of the first man, so the first man was the "head" or source of life our earthly life (as in the head or source of a river) just as Christ is the source of our salvation and spiritual life. God keeps women safe during childbirth, not Artemis. The Apostle Paul clearly states that all people are equal before God, whether Greek or Jew, male or female or master or slave. The Apostle Peter warns that evil people will misinterpret Paul's epistles and twist the scriptures to their own destruction. See 2 Peter 3:16. "Feminists" were necessary to expose the "masculinists." We all need to just need to be human beings as God created us. It is a shame that so many women turn away from the church because of false teachings. Those who twist the scriptures to oppress women do it to their own destruction. God did not intend for women to be oppressed or subjugated by men. God created men and women in his own image and blessed them both. See Genesis 1:27-28. (Male oppression of women is part of the curse resulting from sin, like weeds and poisonous snakes. It is not to be encouraged!) Husbands and wives are to love and mutually submit to each other. Many Christian denominations recognize the equality of men and women. Women are free to pursue careers and spiritual gifts as are men. Both men and women are encouraged to put their families first. (Greek ought to be a required subject in school, so people can read Paul's letters for themselves.) " - Joni

The fact that you used manipulated quote in this way indicates immediately you are desperately digging for things to try and use to support your argument. You just lost all credit.

Serendip Visitor's picture

Amish women

The Amish woman is how God created her to be... a help meet for her husband.
An Amish woman cares for her home and her family as it should be done.
She is hard working, industrious, thrifty, imaginative and creative.
She gets enjoyment from a clean home and good home cooked food that she made from scratch.
She appreciates quiet times just sitting in her rocking chair and sewing in peace.
Amish women can do many things that modern women have no idea how to do.
Important skills are being lost in the modern world, but the Amish woman can keep these skills alive.
An Amish woman adores her children, and she is there all the time to care for their needs.
She deeply loves and respects her husband and happily follows his lead.
She loves the Lord with all her heart, mind and soul and she knows the importance of loving her family and getting on well with each other.
She is gentle and feminine, softly spoken and quiet.
I think modern women could learn a huge amount from the wisdom of the Amish women.

GeorginaJordan's picture

Amish Women's Role

I totally degree! The average American family has lost sight of the "Family Unit"! They farm their children out to Daycare, Latch-Key, Babysitters, etc etc. the children are now, for the most part raised by strangers, who also instill basic morals and ethics into them. Children need and want to be home with their Mothers to teach them, and be with them so they know someone is always there for them and to love and care for them. I'm so tired of hearing how both parents have to work to provide a home an food for the family! That's not. The case. If the mother stayed home, made meals from scratch, kept a garden, didn't buy Un-necessary things, to keep up with the Jones, she could save quite a bit of money, not to mention what's paid out for Daycare etc, and be home with her family. People have become so greedy and disconnected with what is truly important in life, that I doubt they have an inkling as to what they are missing, that cannot be reclaimed.

Aaron O'Donahue's picture

Sources

What is the point of in text citations if you don't list the references?

stanley remmy's picture

change is what we need

the only thing is to stop feminism is to think about God because as human being we have purpose and our creator who is God says women will be the assistance of male but nowsday it seemed like nightmare for woman to respect their male,why is this happening.

James's picture

Interesting article. I, for

Interesting article. I, for one, deeply respect the Amish lifestyle and many of the choices they make. Amish women, in my opinion, are a breath of fresh air.

The simple truth is that feminists are not after equality...they are after superiority. I have never known a feminist who actually wanted to be equal with a man. I have never seen a woman who actually wanted to work as long or as hard as a man or one who was willing to lay down her life in order to defend her country. That is something that has always been passed off to the men. So, in this sense, women do not have the same social responsibilities that men do, but they want the same rights and recognition.

Please consider that in seeking equality, a feminist would have to surrender all the special sex-based perks, privileges, allowances, and entitlements that are freely allocated to women in our society.

Moreover, the feminist manifesto seeks to invade male territory and dominate men on their own turf, destroy the nuclear family, yet retain all that is sacred to the sisterhood.

Is it possible that a group of people defined by sex (feminists) are able to litigate and legislate their way of life into the fabric of society? Yes. But, the question should not be whether it is a possibility, but rather if it is prudent. And to that, the answer is no. I echo the sentiments of the Amish gentleman who stated, in effect, that feminists foolishly try to make women into men. And to that I respond, "God did not make women equal with men...lawyers did."

Women are a creation set apart from men. What sort of madness lives in the minds of those driven to alter and destroy something so unique and beautiful as a woman in her pure state? It is true that women are not equal to men, nor should they aspire to be, but they can be equally valuable if they embrace The Creator's calling. May The Almighty punish those severely who try to make women into men and thus deny the beauty and purpose of their creation.

James's picture

Shame on women? More like Shame on James'!

You say that feminists are ruining women, giving them a bad name? You're giving all people with the name James a bad name!!

1. Maybe some men don't want to win the bread for their families, maybe some girls do. Although on average men are slightly more muscular in build, Amish women are great examples of women who work hard, being farmers. They aren't submissive, and they support their family just as much as the man does. Many women work hard in Amish and Western cultures, and often it is us men not allowing them to reach their full potential in this way.

2. Yes, there are women in the armed forces. On a scale of 1 to Ignorant you are about a 9. Its because of males wanting to dominate and being more naturally aggressive than women are. War is a bad thing, so perhaps it is a positive that women are naturally less violent, yet will lay down their lives for those they love just as men do. Traditional aggressive roles weren't 'passed on' to men, they were arrogantly stolen by them.

3. Being a man has perks, just as being a women has perks. Changing gender roles in society are a result of feminism found not only in women, but ALSO IN SOME MEN WHO BELIEVE IN EQUALITY OF THE SEXES. Feminism is not defined by sex. These changing roles mean that some of the perks of social roles are being shared by men and women. Now, men like you and me are free to take some of the perks being a woman has. Likewise with women. Not that having equality even means in the first place that anybody has to give up any perks. Women can take on any responsibilities they darn well like, without YOU or your God deciding for them.

4. Men are the ones who currently occupy a majority of gender 'territory', it's only right we share it equally. Furthermore, just because someone is a supposed feminist, it does not mean that they want to 'destroy the nuclear family'. My own mother only did volunteer work and did most of the housework, but was a keen feminist who brought me up in a nuclear family. But even if I wasn't brought up in a nuclear family, that isn't even a problem in the first place.

5. You base your beliefs on belief; a belief in a supreme God. Being religious can be great, but once someone turns their religion into ideology as you have then the innocence and truthfulness of faith is corrupted. Basing something you personally believe on something others personally believe is not going to grant you truth. The whole deal with religion is that it requires faith which is often not supported by fact. Please support your arguments with facts, and not your respective religions.

6. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Some guys like guys, have you heard? Also, some girls like girls! Who are YOU to decide which God is superior, and who are YOU to decide how men and women have to behave and what gender they have to think is more beautiful!? May the Almighty you so heartily believe in punish you for manipulating his teachings and being prejudicial towards the women he lovingly created alongside men. You think lawyers are trying to play God? I'm not any lawyers' biggest fan myself, but your interpretation of religion is worse than what any lawyer or feminist is doing. Keep off the internet spouting your sexist nonsense; keep your supremacist values to yourself.
Regards, a sane James

Serendip Visitor's picture

ok

i truley respect your opinion and you have a right to it, but i have to say the facts and the facts are i know plenty of women who are currently in the amry air forces marines that are not only willing but are dying for their country and i know plenty of women who are working twice as hard as men in these factory jobs and come home and til taken carry of there children and husband. I think people in general claim that god is the judge but they constantly pass jugdement on one another. Judgement in an instinct, an opinion of another person beliefs / life style. I dont know what is right what is wrong between one culutre to the next but i believe that we are all gods people just trying to live the best way we can in this very trouble some world. Working mom's trying to take care of there children, amish women having babies to work on the farms. I think every one reads the bible and gives it there own meaning and think they have the power to run around telling another person how to live ones life. I think God is within and thats where i carry my faith not in very scripture of the bible, because even that was man made and shall not b with out fauls.

PROUD VETERAN 's picture

female veteran

I have never seen a woman who actually wanted to work as long or as hard as a man or one who was willing to lay down her life in order to defend her country. -

I would like to focus on this one statement, considering it was written in 2010. I served in the U.S. Army for 7 years as a medic and from 2008-2009 I was with the infantry doing everything they did...giving up showers, pulling hard and long nights, and walking the fine line between death or life in Iraq. So please have your facts straight before you start stating that no woman has wanted to lay down her life for her country becuase for 24 months of my life that is exactly what I was prepared to do. Additionally, while going through the hell with my fellow comrades I was the one holding the hands of the ones that made the ultimate sacrifice, so I would consider broadening your mind and intelligence before speaking again.

Serendip Visitor's picture

Are you serious??

Right off the bat I'm going to say I am a girl. And for your comment have you actually ever met a woman? Women work just as hard as men do to support there families. Women often actually have the supporting role in their families and are the main income. 2nd they work just as long and just as hard as men they are just given less credit. 3rd many women risk their lives to defend their countries for God's sake it's against the law for woman to fight for what they believe in. Besides there is one major problem with women being able to be drafted, you don't see men getting pregnant do you? And finally just what I want to say, women are just as good as men and shouldn't be treated as second class behind men. I hope you understand I'm not trying to be a feminist I just want everyone to be treated equal no matter if you are Asian, Black, White, Mexican, man, or woman. We all are human and god loves us all.

Serendip Visitor's picture

Agree!

I have been "forced" into a male role of providing for my family...I definitely would rather have an Amish role of womanhood. As a society we want "special rights" not equal, it is ridiculous

Visitor's picture

"I have never seen a woman

"I have never seen a woman who actually wanted to work as long or as hard as a man or one who was willing to lay down her life in order to defend her country."

Perhaps you should get out of the house more, or open a newspaper? It's obvious you aren't particularly willing to lay down your life to defend your country yourself, because if you were in the military you would have already met quite a lot of women who were.

Joni's picture

The Bible verses used to

The Bible verses used to subjugate women, which are found in the epistles written by the Apostle Paul, are often mistranslated from the Greek text and misinterpreted. Paul was restricting pagan women from disrupting church services, not restricting Christian women from leadership roles. Similarly, Paul was debunking a Greek myths about the superiority of women over men and the goddess Artemis keeping women safe in childbirth. Paul was trying to explain that the first woman came out of the first man, so the first man was the "head" or source of life our earthly life (as in the head or source of a river) just as Christ is the source of our salvation and spiritual life. God keeps women safe during childbirth, not Artemis. The Apostle Paul clearly states that all people are equal before God, whether Greek or Jew, male or female or master or slave. The Apostle Peter warns that evil people will misinterpret Paul's epistles and twist the scriptures to their own destruction. See 2 Peter 3:16. "Feminists" were necessary to expose the "masculinists." We all need to just need to be human beings as God created us. It is a shame that so many women turn away from the church because of false teachings. Those who twist the scriptures to oppress women do it to their own destruction. God did not intend for women to be oppressed or subjugated by men. God created men and women in his own image and blessed them both. See Genesis 1:27-28. (Male oppression of women is part of the curse resulting from sin, like weeds and poisonous snakes. It is not to be encouraged!) Husbands and wives are to love and mutually submit to each other. Many Christian denominations recognize the equality of men and women. Women are free to pursue careers and spiritual gifts as are men. Both men and women are encouraged to put their families first. (Greek ought to be a required subject in school, so people can read Paul's letters for themselves.)

With the exception of the unfortunate patriarchal system, the Amish people are to be admired for their hard work and simple way of life. The Amish women are especially to be admired for doing the best they can in spite of their oppression. Americans would do well to abandon their electronic gadgets and grow gardens and spend time with their families instead.

Anonymous's picture

Very interesting article. I

Very interesting article.
I hope it makes belligerent feminists realize that their way isn't the only way.
The key difference between Amish women and feminist women is that Amish women worship a higher power, while feminist women worship themselves.

Visitor's picture

I'm sorry you've apparently

I'm sorry you've apparently never met a feminist, because that is the most ridiculous statement I've ever heard.

Anonymous's picture

What?

That is a completely uneducated view of both sides. Why does seeking equality mean you worship yourself?
I find it interesting that people are usually called selfish because they don't do what OTHER people want them to do.

Feminism is about choice. These people are not given a choice as to what they want to do with their lives. They are told that because they are born a certain gender, they must conform to what is demanded of them. Regardless of whether or not we think it is right, your accusation that feminists worship only themselves is as ridiculous as it is wildly general and uneducated.

Anonymous's picture

If you did proper research,

If you did proper research, you would know that Amish women do have a choice. At the age of 16 (no matter if the child is male or female)they are allowed to practice Rumspringa. During Rumspringa, teens are allowed to go explore the world outside of their community. After this time of exploration 85 - 90% deside to stay within the community they grew up in. Amish women accept the role of mother and housekeeper because it was their choice and not because they were born a female. If these feminists spent less time worrying about being equal to men and what is or isn't fair, and more time taking care of their families there wouldn't be so many problems with today's youth. I am a working married mother and I admire the Amish women, and their husbands that see them as equals.

Serendip Visitor's picture

Rumspringa

Do you really think Rumspringa gives them real a choice? On the contrary. They grow up with the idea that the "outside" world is evil. Besides, they were taught that those who decide to walk away from the Amish way of life will lose salvation. Those are strong links that were formed since childhood. You can add losing any family tie just for choosing your own path and break the establish rules and tradition. Additionally, not all communities let teenagers practice Rumspringa, and in some groups, teens are not allowed to "go explore the world" during that period.

"If these feminists spent less time worrying about being equal to men and what is or isn't fair":
That is exactly the reason why 150 Mennonite women (authorities think the number is close to 300) were raped in a 3 year period in the Manitoba colony in Bolivia.
Justice: The upholding of what is just, especially fair treatment. You say that women should not be worried for the "equal" and "fair" speech. You are promoting injustice toward women.

Akasha's picture

If a young man or woman

If a young man or woman decides to remain in the "secular" world and not return to the fold, then they are effectively ostracised and will never be spoken of or received by their family and friends again. Not much choice there when your education is rudimentary at best and finishes when you are 12 or so. Hardly surprising so few choose to leave - the choice is made for them.

Caitlin's picture

Amish women

this is a really good paper it views the way life is for the amish and how they are treated some of the things are unfair but other things show that the amish can be caring to their wives but still some of the things that the amish men do is sick and needs to be taken care of and not just by the amish church the authorities need to be invloved too.

Anne Dalke's picture

Choosing Feminism

hope--

the conclusion of your paper--the claim that Amish women choose to stay in their communities--puts me in mind of a claim made not so long ago in this course that feminism is choice. You've given an account of women who make choices to remain in a community that gives them a sense of worth, a choice that has--at least in part--to do with the need to belong to a collective, to something larger than the self. The rubric of value here may be less individual, more communal. You are also exploring the possibility of "separate but equal"--gender roles that are distinct, but not necessarily hierarchical in relation to one another, in terms of value to the community.

Also striking to me is your description of how the Amish dress code might be freeing, in taking attention away from physical appearance. In that way, some of the central ideas in your essay are echoed by those of your classmates who looked @ veiling: see Veiling in Persepolis, Female Veiling in Iran, and Veiling in the United States. You might pay especial attention to the last essay, which has a number of resonances w/ your own.

I'd also be interested in hearing more about how these ideas intersect with others we have explored in class; you give no sense of how they intersect with other explorations of (say) collective feminisms, or any sense of how those explorations may have fueled your own.

Finally, in a paper which is so sensitive to the "salience of cultural location," I'm puzzled not to have a sense of where you are located in relation to this material. You speak several times of the possible reactions of "feminists examining Amish culture"--who are those feminists? Where are they located? What sort of feminism are they practicing? Are you one of them, and what sort of practitioner are you? The speaker in this paper, in other words, is strangely unlocated in any culture.

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