activities for teaching biology

Structure and Function of Molecules and Cells

In this analysis and discussion activity, students learn how the function of molecules and cells is related to structure (including shape, constituent components, and relationships between components). Students analyze multiple examples of the relationship between structure and function in diverse proteins and eukaryotic cells. In addition, students learn that cells are dynamic structures with constant activity, students learn about emergent properties, and students engage in argument from evidence to evaluate three alternative claims concerning the relationship between structure and function. 

The first attached file has the Student Handout and the second attached file has the Teacher Notes. The Teacher Notes provide background information and instructional suggestions and explain how this activity is aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards.

Structure and Function of Cells, Organs and Organ Systems

In this analysis and discussion activity, students learn how the function of cells, organs and organ systems is related to structure (including shape, constituent components, and relationships between components). Students analyze multiple examples of the relationship between structure and function in diverse eukaryotic cells and in the digestive system. In addition, students learn that cells are dynamic structures with constant activity and they learn how body systems interact to accomplish important functions.  

The first attached file has the Student Handout and the second attached file has the Teacher Notes. The Teacher Notes provide background information and instructional suggestions and explain how this activity is aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards.

Using Models to Understand Photosynthesis

In this analysis and discussion activity, students develop their understanding of the basic process of photosynthesis and also analyze the advantages and disadvantages of different types of models of photosynthesis, including chemical equations, a chart and a diagram. In addition, students analyze how photosynthesis and cellular respiration work together to provide the ATP that plants need to carry out their molecular and cellular processes. 

The first attached file has the Student Handout and the second attached file has the Teacher Notes. The Teacher Notes provide background information and instructional suggestions and explain how this activity is aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards.

Alignment of Activities with Next Generation Science Standards

Many of our activities for helping middle school and high school students learn life sciences are aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS; http://www.nextgenscience.org/next-generation-science-standards). The following tables summarize our activities that are explicitly aligned with NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Performance Expectations. These tables also summarize how each of these activities engages students in Scientific Practices and provides the opportunity to discuss Crosscutting Concepts. Brief descriptions of these activities are compiled at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/bioactivities/NGSS/listing. The Teacher Notes for each activity provide additional information concerning alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards.

Learning Activities for Disciplinary Core Idea (DCI) LS1.A - Structure and Function (Part 1)

These activities help to prepare students to meet Performance Expectations (PE):

Genetic Engineering Challenge – How can scientists develop a type of rice that could prevent vitamin A deficiency?

This analysis and discussion activity begins with an introduction to vitamin A deficiency, rice seeds, and genetic engineering. Next, several questions challenge students to design a basic plan that could produce a genetically engineered rice plant that makes rice grains that contain pro-vitamin A. Subsequent information and questions guide students in developing an understanding of the basic techniques of genetic engineering. Students use fundamental molecular biology concepts as they think about how to solve a practical problem. This activity can be used to introduce students to genetic engineering or to reinforce basic understanding of genetic engineering. 

The attached files have the Student Handout and Teacher Notes. The Teacher Notes provide background information and instructional suggestions and explain how this activity is aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards.

Golden Rice – Evaluating the Pros and Cons

This activity engages students in evaluating the evidence and arguments related to Golden Rice and other possible strategies for preventing vitamin A deficiency. Students use this information to develop evidence-based conclusions about Golden Rice and the prevention of vitamin A deficiency. Students also develop questions that could provide important additional information for evaluating the arguments in favor of and opposed to Golden Rice and related policy proposals. In addition, students analyze how two reasonably accurate articles can present totally opposing points of view on this complex policy issue.

The attached files have the Student Handout and Teacher Notes. 

How could complex eyes have evolved?

This analysis and discussion activity introduces students to evidence from comparative anatomy, mathematical modeling, and DNA analysis. This evidence suggests a sequence of steps that appear to have contributed to the evolution of the human eye. Questions in the Student Handout guide students in analyzing this evidence, evaluating whether the similarities between human and octopus eyes are due to convergent evolution and/or common descent with modification, and understanding the role of gene duplication in evolution. This activity is designed to help high school students meet the Next Generation Science Standards and the Common Core State Standards.

The first attached file has the Student Handout and the second attached file has the Teacher Notes.



Evolution and Adaptations

In common experience, the term "adapting" usually refers to changes during an organism's lifetime. In contrast, evolutionary biologists use the term "adaptation" to refer to a heritable trait that increases fitness. To help students reconcile these different concepts, this activity introduces the concept of phenotypic plasticity (the ability of an organism to adapt to different environments within its lifetime). Questions guide students in analyzing how the balance between the advantages and disadvantages of a characteristic (e.g. an animal’s color) can vary in different circumstances, how phenotypic plasticity can be a heritable trait that can optimize fitness in a variable environment, and how natural selection can influence the amount of phenotypic plasticity in a population. This activity is designed to help high school students meet the Next Generation Science Standards and the Common Core State Standards.

The first attached file has the Student Handout and the second attached file has the Teacher Notes.


Population Growth – Exponential and Logistic Models vs. Complex Reality

This analysis and discussion activity is designed to help students develop a solid understanding of the exponential and logistic models of population growth, including the biological processes that result in exponential or logistic population growth. Students learn about the simplifying assumptions built into the exponential and logistic models and explore how deviations from these assumptions can result in discrepancies between the predictions of these models and the actual trends in population size for natural populations. This activity is designed to help students meet the Next Generation Science Standards and the Common Core State Standards.

The first two attached files have the version of the Student Handout that engages students in understanding the mathematical formulae for the exponential and logistic models of population growth, as well as evaluating the relative advantages of graphs and mathematical formulae as models of population growth (first file is a Word document and second file is a PDF). The third attached file has the version of the Student Handout that omits the mathematical formulae. The fourth attached file has the Teacher Notes for this activity.

Resources for Teaching and Learning about Evolution

This annotated compilation of some of the best resources for teaching and learning about evolution includes activities, videos and articles. In the attached file, the first section provides general and introductory resources and the second section provides resources for understanding and analyzing the evidence.

The attached file has brief descriptions of the resources with links.


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