- Gender Differences in Adult Perspectives on Adolescent Reproductive Behaviors: Evidence from Lomé, Togo, December 2001
This study investigated adults' attitudes toward adolescent sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Gender Differences in Physical Attraction
Similarities and differences between the sexes in tactics of attraction as well as body self-image.
- Gender Differences Found in Effects of Pain Medication, March 2000
Researchers led by UCSF physicians are reporting that an experimental pain drug known as a kappa-opioid brings pain relief to female rats but not males, a finding that adds weight to a recent UCSF clinical finding and highlights the need to evaluate drugs by gender.
- A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences in Perceptions of Sexual Harassment
The authors report a meta-analysis of 62 studies of gender differences in harassment perceptions.
- Men, Women and Sex Differences: The Attitudes of Three Feminists
A case study of how Gloria Steinem, Gloria Allred and Bella Abzug responded to evidence of sex differences.
- Male and Female Differences in Reports of Women’s Heterosexual Initiation and Aggression
The present study is a replication of previous work that compared male and female reports of women’s heterosexual initiation and aggression.
- Gender, Genes Are Linked To Pain Response, February 2000
Genes and gender explain part of the difference in how people feel pain, and also why some get more relief from painkillers than others do.
- Men Show Feelings In Lower Left Quadrant Of Face, February 2001
Although men and women are equally expressive, men display most of their joy, disgust or other sentiments in the lower left quadrant of their face. Women, on the other hand, show their emotions across their entire countenance.
- Gender Differences Possible Root of Sleeping Disorder, November 2001
Gender hormones may be a key factor in the onset of a common human disorder called sleep apnea, suggest findings from a new study.
- The Meaning of Color for Gender
This article presents information on research indicating that there is a gender difference in response to color.
- Gender Differences in Risk Behaviors Associated With Forced or Pressured Sex, January 1998
This article determines whether gender-specific patterns of risk behaviors are associated with a self-reported history of ever having been forced or pressured to have sexual intercourse among sexually active adolescents.
- Gender Affects Relationships Between Drug Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders, July 1997
This article discusses the gender differences in the use of drugs and alcohol and the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.
- Gender Differences in Drinking Patterns and Problems Among College Students
This review of the literature reports gender variations in drinking patterns and problems among college students.
- Nicotine Addiction
Several avenues of research now indicate that men and women differ in their smoking behavior and that differences in nicotine sensitivity may be the root cause.
- Study Sheds Light on Role of Gender Differences in the Risk of HIV Infection Among Injection Drug Users, May 2001
HIV risk factors among injection drug users (IDUs) differ markedly by gender, according to a 10-year study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
- Men, Women, and the Internet: Gender Differences
Gender influences the types of applications and underlying reasons for Internet addiction.
- Gender Differences in Drug Abuse Risks and Treatment, September 2000
From NIDA, this page summarizes research findings on gender differences in drug use, including women and men tend to abuse different drugs, that the effects of drugs are different for women and men, and that some approaches to treatment are more successful for women than for men.
- Health Center Study Identifies Gender Differences Among Problem Gamblers, November 2001
Among male and femaleproblem gamblers, there are some major differences, according to a new study on treatments for problem gamblers.
- Men and Women Gamble for Different Reasons, Yale Researchers Report, September 2001
Male gamblers are more likely than female gamblers to report addictive behavior related to strategic or "face-to-face" forms of gambling such as blackjack or poker.
- Gender Differences May Affect Substance Abuse Treatment Retention, December 2000
A short summary of how researchers identified some gender-based differences in retention rates between men and women in outpatient programs treating alcohol and drug abuse.
- Female Drinkers Face More Health Risks than Men, January 2002
A recently released study found that women who drink heavily face more severe, long-term health problems than men.
- Gender Differences in Body Image, September 1998
Summary of an article from Psychological Science, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of these 222 studies, analyzing effect sizes for gender differences in each of the studies.
- Eating Disorders in Males, September 1995
Differences between the sexes in predisposition, course and onset of eating disorders are discussed.
- National Eating Disorder Association The Latest Facts
Information about eating disorders in in men, women and teens, noting treatment, research, support.
- Gender Differences in Computer-Simulated Virtual Environments
Well-documented gender differences in people's ability to navigate in the real world are vastly exaggerated in computer-simulated virtual environment, according to University of Washington researchers.
- The Biological Basis for Gender Based Differences in Web-Based "Discussions" and Assessment, January 2001
why elimination of appearance or voice pitch cues in asynchronous communication of Web-based discussion does not automatically create gender equity.
- Male/Female Communication Styles
This article discusses gender differences in communication style.
- Age, Gender Affect Auditory Measures of Interhemispheric Function During Middle-Age Years, April, 2001
Researchers have found that both aging and gender affect the auditory functioning of an adult's brain during middle age and that this may contribute to auditory and communication difficulties.
- On-Line Smiles: Does Gender Make a Difference in the Use of Graphic Accents?
This article researches whether it is possible to determine the gender of a message sender from cues in the message.
- Using E-mail for Personal Relationships: The Difference Gender Makes
This article explores the types of relationships women and men maintain by e-mail, differences in their e-mail use locally and at a distance, and differences in the contents of messages they send.
- Democracy or Difference: A Literature Review of Gender Differences in Online Communication, 1997
This article provides an in-depth review of several theories related to gender and communication on the Internet.
- Gender Styles in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
This article attempts to answer the question: If we assume that men and women have different styles of face-to-face communication and use it for different purposes, will these differences carry over into computer-mediated communication?
- Gender Often Does Matter in Communications Between Parents and Children, May 1998
But UCSC researchers find that differences in communication styles are not uniform - and that the differences may be related to the conversation topics men and women select.
- Gender Differences in the Chinese Language: A Preliminary Report, May 1997
This paper brings together both scattered observations and detailed published works on Chinese to provide a preliminary report on gender differences in the Chinese language.
- Gender Differences In Communication
How the genders are perceived to express themselves differently in the form of communications, if at all, and whether or not actual differences exist according to scientific research.
- Gender Differences in E-mail Communication
This article examines the implications of gender differences on language use in electronic mail discussion groups.
- Gender Gap Shows Cyberspace Bias
The difference between men and women in performing the mental rotation test is increased when one is exploring the virtual rather than a real space.
- Gender Equity, February 2002
Changes in school structure and teaching style following results of research on students and gender differences in learning style, behavior and cognition.
- Gender and Differing Rates of Brain Activity Influence the Level of Reading and Language Skills for Boys and Girls
The current study has investigated the emerging connectivity of neural networks associated with phonological processing, verbal fluency, higher-level thinking and word retrieval.
- Gender Differences in Educational Achievement within Racial and Ethnic Groups, August 2001
While demonstrating generally that there are more similarities than variations in gender differences among racial/ethnic groups, present statistics showing some interesting twists in the way the differences are manifested.
- Solution Strategies and Gender Differences in Spatial Visualization Tasks, 2000
This study examined solution strategies, analytic and holistic or spacial manipulation, and gender differences in a Spatial Visualization (Vz) task.
- Gender Differences and Adolescent Social Cognition
This article presents the similarities and differences in male and female development.
- Gender Differences in Cognition: Myths and Facts
A list of myths and facts regarding differences men and women.
- Gender Differences Found In The Way Boys And Girls Solve Math Problems, June 1997
Two studies look at gender differences in math learning in elementary school and the role social pressure plays in math achievement for adolescents.
- Gender Differences in Acquisition of Environmental Knowledge, July 1999
This artice presents information on the acquisition of environmental knowledge related to wayfinding behavior, spatial anxiety and self-estimated environmental competencies.
- Gender Differences in Asynchronous Learning in Higher Education, May, 1999
This article discusses gender differences in learning styles, participation barriers and communication patterns.
- Is the Glass Half Empty or Half full?
An excellent feature from Scientific American Explorations that documents the changing challenges facing women in science, delve into gender differences, examine the underlying causes and theories about women's status in science and present some proposals for change.
- Why Are There So Few Women in Science?, September, 1999
Women are unequally represented in science and their career progression is not comparable to their male colleagues.
- Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering
This report is the 10th in a series of Congressionally mandated biennial reports on the status of women and minorities in science and engineering.
- Where Have All The Women Gone? The Lack of Female Science Faculty
This article examines the largely cultural reasons that women continue to vote against the academic sciences, including the premium traditionally placed on competition, hierarchy and toughness.
- Findings from The Condition of Education 1997: Women in Mathematics and Science
This essay, taken from The Condition of Education 1997, reviews the most current data on women's progress in mathematics and science achievement, attitudes, course-taking patterns, and college majors.
- Women Scientists and Engineers Employed in Industry: Why So Few?
A 1994 report from the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) of the National Research Council.
- The Gender Gap in Science, October 2001
Societal norms, a lack of role models, discrimination, husbands, kids, and cats: Anybody who wants to bring gender equity to science has many issues to tackle. The gender gap goes far beyond campus policies.
- The "Problem" of Women in Science: Why Is It So Difficult to Convince People There Is One?
Despite the discouraging statistics about women in science, it is still surprisingly difficult to convince working scientists that there is a problem or that it is their problem and not the fault of women scientists themselves.
- How Women Make Science Work, Decebmer 2000
The story of Carol Kovac, director of IBM Life Sciences, and the impact of gender stereotypes and real life issues on her powerful position.
- Crashing the Top, October 1999
Women at elite universities may have broken the ivory ceiling, but they're still battling old-fashioned discrimination.
- Too Few at the Top Women in Science, November 2000
The author examines some of the factors underlying the slow progress of women in science.
- Women in Biotech: A Personal Perspective, December 2001
This article examines and suggests several potential reasons for few women holding high level positions in the biotech industry and looks ahead to what the future might hold for women in biotechnology.
- Female Scientists Turn Their Backs on Jobs at Research Universities, August 2000
Many say liberal-arts colleges provide a better place for women to thrive.
- The Glass Ceiling As Signifier, February 2001
An article about women in academics and findings that indicate things are worse than ever for women on the faculties of major universities.
- Women Without Tenure, September, 2001
The first in a series of 3 articles that explores the academy as a place for women to work, particularly in the sciences. However, most women experience the academic culture differently from men and consequently make different choices about faculty careers.
- Knocking on the Doors of the Ivory Tower
Young women navigate academic medicine's gender roadblocks.
- How the Tenure Track Discriminates Against Women, October 2000
This article investigates why the proportion of tenured female faculty members rose so slowly despite a sharp increase in the number of women earning advanced academic degrees.
- Why Don't Women Publish as Much as Men?
Some blame inequity in academe; others say quantity doesn't matter.
- Women in Cell Biology
Article discusses why women leave scienece.
- Women Science Majors: What Makes a Difference in Persistence after Graduation?, August 1995
The present study examines factors associated with persistence in the sciences for young women who majored in sciences and mathematics as undergraduates at a leading women's college.
The MIT Report
- A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT, March 1999
A study at MIT that analyzes impact of gender on work, including the representation of women faculty in science, salaries, and work/home struggles compared with men.
- An MIT Professor's Suspicion of Bias Leads to a New Movement for Academic Women
Faculty members at other universities seek to apply her approach to promote gender equity.
- Creating Fairness for Women Scientists: Lessons from MIT
This article starts with the MIT report and goes on to analyze sources of perceptual gender bias and suggest strategies for dealing with it.
- MIT and Gender Bias: Following Up on Victory
This article recounts the efforts of a group of female faculty members at MIT to draw attention to disparities in the way male and female faculty members were treated there.
- US Science Shocked by Revelations of Sexual Discrimination, June 2000
The scientific establishment in the United States has received a resoundingwake-up call over sexual equality.
- MIT Acknowledges Bias Against Female Faculty Members, April 1999
This article summarizes MIT's candid report that responds to complaints by women on salaries, office size, committee assignments, and awards.
- From Alaskan Outpost, Judith Kleinfeld Looks Down on Higher Education, November 2000
An article written by a women who criticizes the MIT report.
- Sex and science, April 2001
A critical article regarding the MIT study.
- Girls and Violence
This article reviews current research on girls' (compared with boys') delinquent and violent behavior (risk-taking), the factors contributing to it, and effective programming strategies to prevent it.
- Women's Salaries in Life Sciences One-Third Less, October 2001
In the life sciences wage gaps start out small, but inequities between genders accumulate over a long career resulting in deep divides. Risk-taking is one area that affects this discrepancy.
- Gender Differences in General Aviation Crashes
Study finds male pilots paid less attention and demonstrated more risk-taking behaiors while femals pilots mishandled aircraft.
- Gender Differences in the Suicide-Related Behaviors of Adolescents and Young Adults, 1998
Suicidal behavior has been directly associated with other risk-taking behaviors. This article proposes that suicide prevention will be enhanced if life-enhancing behaviors are increased and life-threatening behaviors are decreased.
- Risk-Enhancing Phenomena in Gambling
This study investigated risk-taking differences with respect to group exposure and the familiarization effect. No gender differences were found in the present study.
- Nature and Lifestyle Kill Men Earlier, February 2001
In addition to evidence suggesting that sex chromosomes and hormones affect mortality, risk taking behavior, especially cigarette smoking, also contributes to males dying at younger ages.
- Gender Differences in Strategic Decision-Making
Results indicate that there are no significant gender differences in venture innovation/risk situation, in strategies chosen by entrepreneurs, or in satisfaction with venture performance.
- Gender Specific Attitudes Towards Risk and Ambiguity, July 2000
Researchers conducted a lottery experiment introducing three types of probability information: pure risk, weak ambiguity and strong ambiguity. The main result is that gender differences may arise in ambiguity frames: women are more ambiguity averse than men in the investment context, but not in the insurance context.
- Growing Up Male and Female in Canada
The emergence of a gendered identity and a sense of gender appropriate behaviour (i.e., risk-taking) are important to understanding the links between gender and health.
- Is Passenger Presence Associated With More or Less Risk Taking?
It seems that there is an association between not only driver age and sex with speed choice (risk-taking behavior) but also that passenger age and sex have a role to play.
- 4 Women.gov
National Women's Health Information Center Answers Questions What is, Who Gets, and How to Treat Postpartum Depression.
- Medline Plus
A Service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Information, Treatment Options, Research on Postpartum Depression.
- Online PPD Support Group
Online Support, Professional Advice, Treatment Options and Reseaqrch Information, and book reviews, presonal experiences, and forums.
- Mass General Center for Women's Health
Information for professionals about Postpartum psychiatric disorders.
- The Postpartum Stress Center
Founded in 1988 by Karen Kleiman, MSW. The Center was established to provide a better understanding and comprehensive clinical interventionfor any woman who suffers from the range of postpartum psychiatric disorders.
Back to Mental Health Project.
These resource lists are being maintained by Debbie Plotnick, working with Paul Grobstein, Department of Biology, and James Martin, School of Social Work and Social Research, at Bryn Mawr College. Suggestions for additions to the list are welcome, as are more general thoughts about how to most effectively make available information, and promote conversation, about issues of mental health. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org - email@example.com - firstname.lastname@example.org.
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